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# Basic Matlab/Scilab Instructions

This tour shows some basics about Matlab/Scilab programming.

## Installing toolboxes and setting up the path.

You need to download the following files: signal toolbox and general toolbox.

You need to unzip these toolboxes in your working directory, so that you have toolbox_signal and toolbox_general in your directory.

For Scilab user: you must replace the Matlab comment '%' by its Scilab counterpart '//'.

Recommandation: You should create a text file named for instance numericaltour.sce (in Scilab) or numericaltour.m (in Matlab) to write all the Scilab/Matlab command you want to execute. Then, simply run exec('numericaltour.sce'); (in Scilab) or numericaltour; (in Matlab) to run the commands.

Execute this line only if you are using Matlab.

getd = @(p)path(p,path); % scilab users must *not* execute this


Then you can add the toolboxes to the path.

getd('toolbox_signal/');
getd('toolbox_general/');


Matlab and Scilab are very similar languages. One of the main difference is that Matlab uses the character % to write comments, whereas Scilab uses the C-like syntax //.

% this is a Matlab comment


It is thus very important, in all the numerical tours, to replace % comments by // comments if you are using Scilab.

## Basic Matlab/Scilab commands.

The basic data is a 1D or 2D array.

a = 1; a = 2+1i; % real and complex numbers
b = [1 2 3 4]; % row vector
c = [1; 2; 3; 4]; % column vector
d = 1:2:7; % here one has d=[1 3 5 7]


You an acess one entry of an array, or select a sub-array by indexing.

% display the size
size(d)
% display the first entry
d(1)
% display the sub-array containing entries 1 and 2
d(1:2)

ans =

1     4

ans =

1

ans =

1     3



You can create pre-defined array using some basic functions

% identity, 1 and random matrices
A = eye(4,4);
B = ones(4,4);
C = rand(4,4);
% transpose
c = b';


The multiplication operator * is the matrix multiplication. To actually multiplies each entry of a vector, you need to use .*

% note the difference
D = C*A
D = C.*A
% You can apply functions to each entry of a matrix
E = A./C; % division
E = sin(A); % sinus is applied to each entry
E = abs(A + 1i*C); % modulus of each entry

D =

0.4218    0.6557    0.6787    0.6555
0.9157    0.0357    0.7577    0.1712
0.7922    0.8491    0.7431    0.7060
0.9595    0.9340    0.3922    0.0318

D =

0.4218         0         0         0
0    0.0357         0         0
0         0    0.7431         0
0         0         0    0.0318



You can modify matrices and arrays in various way.

b = sort(b); % sort values
b = b .* (b>2); % set to zeros (threshold) the values below 2
b(3) = []; % suppress the 3rd entry of a vector
B = [b; b]; % create a matrix of size 2x4
c = B(:,2); % to access 2nd column


Is is possible to access directly the last entry of a vector using the keyword end in Matlab and $in Scilab. % The equivalent Scilab code is % b($-2:$) = 1; b(end-2:end) = 1; % to access the last entries % The equivalent Scilab code is % b = b($:-1:1);
b = b(end:-1:1); % reverse a vector


disp('Hello'); % display a text
x = 1.23456;
disp( sprintf('Value of x=%.2f', x) ); % print a values with 2 digits
A(A==Inf) = 3; % replace Inf values by 3
A(:); % flatten a matrix into a column vector
max(A(:)); % max of a matrix
% threshold to 0 values below .3.
C = C .* (abs(C)>.3);

Hello
Value of x=1.23


To display information of about a function, use the help command, for instance help perform_wavelet_transf.

Basic programming constructions include for, while and switch instructions.

for i=1:3 % repeat the loop for i=1, i=2, i=3
disp(i); % make here something
end
i = 3;
while i>0 % while syntax
disp(i); % do smth
i = i-1;
end

     1

2

3

3

2

1



## Load and visualize signals and images

n = 256; % size of the image

clf;